Knowledge related to Max Burr
Maxwell Arthur Burr (born 9 January 1939) is an Australian retired politician. Born in Launceston, Tasmania, he was educated at Launceston Business College before becoming an accountant and Secretary of the Tasmanian Farmers' Federation. In 1975, he was elected to the Australian House of Representatives as the Liberal member for Wilmot, defeating long-serving Labor member Gil Duthie. When Wilmot was abolished in 1984, Burr successfully contested its successor, Lyons. He held the seat until his retirement in 1993.
After retirement, Burr was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 2012. In 2019, news coverage documented his use of experimental infrared light therapy as a treatment for his condition, which he believed had significantly alleviated a large number of his symptoms and which had encouraged a number of other people to do likewise. A clinical trial of the system was announced in early 2019.
â¢ Other Related Knowledge of light therapy
Implications for high vs. low self-complexity of light therapy
In accordance with clinical and personality perspectives, variations in self-complexity are suggested to be factors that either contribute to, or protect against damages to individuals physical and mental well-being. In particular, individual differences in self-complexity are predictive of emotional stability and reactivity to stress, which can moderate depression, physical illnesses, and self-esteem.
Benefits of high self-complexityAccording to Linville, individuals who possess high self-complexity may use their unaffected self-aspects as cognitive buffers, protecting against negative affects/self-appraisals and the health consequences associated with these stressors. For example, a woman who considers herself a successful lawyer, mother, wife and friend may experience less negative affects and self-appraisals, following a divorce, compared to a woman whose self-aspects were limited to her being a successful lawyer and wife, because the former retains a number of diverse self-aspects on which she can rely. Furthermore, if another woman's self-aspect as a wife was closely associated with her self-aspect as a lawyer (if, for example, her husband was also a lawyer) her affectivity could be even more severely impacted due to the spillover process, leading to heightened feelings of inadequacy and stress. In this vein, high self-complexity could be considered a buffer against threats to a particular domain of self-aspects, while low self-complexity could be viewed as a diathesis for stress-related disorders and depression; the majority of an individual's self-aspects would be negatively affected by stressful life events.
Benefits of low self-complexityAs an alternative to the conclusions above, other members in the field of psychology consider low self-complexity to benefit individuals well-being in select scenarios. Despite the fact that highly self-complex individuals are capable of limiting their affective reactivity to negative events, this same emotional restraint is observed in reaction to positive events. Therefore, in comparison to highly self-complex individuals, individuals who are low in self-complexity, but who generally experience positive life events are likely to experience increased positive affect, enhancing well-being and self-esteem and deterring the effects of depression and physical illness that are typically stress-induced. This effect is especially likely if low self-complexity individuals believe they possess an extensive social support network and desirable personality characteristics.
Moreover, although high self-complexity allows numerous, differentiated self-aspects to diffuse the damage incurred by one or more self-aspects in undesirable experiences, the possession of multiple, unrelated self-aspects can be viewed as a fragmentation of one's self-concept. From this stance, highly self-complex individuals may suffer the strain of role conflict, identity uncertainty, and/or identity competition (e.g., determined businesswoman vs. nurturing mother), all of which have been known to enhance depression, neuroticism, and low self-esteem and can ultimately lead to chronic, low-level stress as a result of everyday hassle. In light of these arguments, it is suggested that high self-complexity is beneficial only to the extent that one's various self-aspects remain distinct, yet integrated with one another.
Early education and background of light therapy
Shaikh Kutty graduated in the traditional Islamic sciences and received the Ijazah (title) of al-Faqih fi al-ddeen (first rank) from Islamiya College Santapuram, a leading Islamic institution in south India. He served as an editor for the Jamaat Kerala mouthpiece Probadhanam. During his tenure he also translated Sayyid Qutb's Social Justice (al-adalatul ijtimaiyyah fi al-Islam) into Malayalam (first published in 1969). (Note: i.p.h publications no:74, Islamic Publishing House, Calicut, Kerala, India).
Shaikh Kutty earned a scholarship to study at the Islamic University of Madinah, Saudi Arabia, from where he obtained his Licentiate in Usul al-Ddeen (first rank passing at the top of his class in 1972).
In 1972, he arrived in Canada with a scholarship to pursue his M.A. in Islamic studies from the University of Toronto. He went on to further his doctoral studies at the McGill University Institute of Islamic Studies where he earned scholarships (from 1975 to 1980) to pursue his research under the supervision of Professor Charles Adams and Prof. A. ner Turgay. The Institute, established in 1952 by Wilfred Cantwell Smith, is the first institute of Islamic studies in North America.
During a visit to India in 1976, an arrest warrant was issued for Shaikh Kutty under The Emergency (India) declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhis administration mainly (for his translation work with Islamic Publishing House and Probodhanam Weekly, the mouthpiece of Kerala Jamaate). In India, "the Emergency" refers to a 21-month period in 197577 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi unilaterally had a state of emergency declared across the country. Officially issued by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed under Article 352(1) of the Constitution for "internal disturbance", the Emergency was in effect from 25 June 1975 until its withdrawal on 21 March 1977.
His son Faisal Kutty recounts as one of his earliest childhood memories as running from safe house to safe house, until the family was able to leave India.
In 2003, Shaikh Kutty made international headlines when he and Imam Abdul Hamid were detained and held in a Fort Lauderdale jail after disembarking from their flight on 11 September. The two were travelling to Florida to speak at an Islamic conference. He is a well-known scholar, preacher and speaker on Islam and Muslims. He was also one of the first and most vocal imams to condemn the terrorist attacks on the twin towers in the same day in a Friday Sermon at the Islamic Center of Toronto.
Furthermore, among the topics to be discussed at the conference in Orlando was the dangers of extremism and fanaticism. After returning to Canada, Shaikh Kutty asked:.mw-parser-output .templatequoteoverflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequoteciteline-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0But if the American immigration officials can go after me and Hamid who are well-known for preaching moderation, what happens to ordinary Muslims?
Development of the measure of light therapy
Together with the systematizing quotient, the empathy quotient was developed by Simon Baron-Cohen and is used to test his empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory of autism. This cognitive theory attempts to account for two different aspects of autism disorder: the social and communication barriers and the narrow interest and attention to detail. Baron-Cohen associated the social and communication barriers with a lack of empathy, not only a lack of theory of mind but also an inability to respond to others' thoughts and emotions. He associated the narrow interest and attention to detail with a special ability to systematize or analyze. This theory is consistent with the findings that individuals with autism score significantly higher scores on the systemizing quotient and lower scores on the empathizing quotient than the general population. Although these scores have been found consistently, there is controversy about whether the autistic brain differs qualitatively or quantitatively.
The E-S theory is also associated with a theory of autism called the extreme male brain theory. The extreme male brain theory is based on the finding that males score significantly higher on the systemizing quotient and lower on the empathy quotient than females in both adult and child populations., and that scores of the autistic population were also higher on systemizing and lower on empathizing but to an extreme. Baron-Cohen hypothesized that the tendencies of autistic scores to be similar to male scores might imply that the autistic brain is more like the male than the female brain in general, and that this might be due to prenatal testosterone. This is one hypothesis that accounts for the sex difference in the prevalence of autism (male-female ratio: 4:1 for autism, 10.8:1 for Asperger syndrome).
The extreme male brain theory has led to some controversy, and tests of the hypothesis had mixed findings on the correlation between biological indicators of prenatal testosterone and scores on the systemizing quotient and empathy quotient. Chapman et al. found that male children who had been exposed to more prenatal testosterone scored lower on the EQ, indicating that there is not only a sex difference in empathy but also a difference within the male population which is correlated with prenatal testosterone. There is also evidence against this theory. For example, one possible biomarker for prenatal testosterone's effect on the brain is a low ratio of the second to fourth finger (the 2D:4D ratio), which has been found to be associated with several male specific psychological factors. A significantly lower 2D:4D ratio than the general population has been found in autistic individuals, however there was no correlation between the empathizing and systemizing quotients and the 2D:4D ratio. The authors give many possible explanations for this finding which are contrary to the extreme male brain theory of autism, for example it is possible that the psychometric properties of the quotients are lacking or that the theory itself is incorrect and the difference in autistic brains is not an extreme of normal functioning but of a different structure altogether.
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